one of two numbers, or terms, being added together
associative property
a property of real numbers that states that the grouping of two numbers in a series of numbers with the same operation does not affect the sum or product
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
(a × b) × c = a × (b × c)
boundary line
the edge of a region indicating the set of points that is a solution to the linear inequality
coefficient
the number multiplied by the variable in an equation, the number in front of the variable
coinciding lines
lines which are exactly the same line and fit on top of each other, the solution is a false statement without variables
commutative property
a property of real numbers that states that the order in which two numbers are added or multiplied does not change the sum or product
a + b = b + a
a × b = b × a
consistent system
a system of linear equations that has at least one solution
constant of variation
in a variation relationship between two variables, the number that relates the two variables; in a direct variation, the constant of variation is a factor in the product, and in an inverse variation, the constant of variation is the numerator in the ratio
continuous data
data where numbers between any two data values are included in the solution
constant
a value that does not change
coordinate plane
a planar region defined by an x-axis and a y-axis that is used to describe the location of points using ordered pairs, (x, y)
coordinates
an ordered pair of numbers, usually of the form (x, y), indicating a location on a coordinate plane
correlation
relationship of the points
dependent system
a system of linear equations that has infinitely many solutions
dependent variable
the output variable of a relationship
direct variation
a relationship between two variables such that the ratio of their values always remains the same
discrete data
data that involve only specific values
distributive property
a property of real numbers that states that multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend by the number and then adding the products
x(a + b) = ax + bx
domain
the set of input values of a function or relation
equation
a number or algebraic expression equal to another number or algebraic expression
exponential decay
a situation in which as the independent variable increases the dependent variable decreases exponentially, exponential decay is the half-life of a radioactive element
exponential growth
a situation in which as the independent variable increases the dependent variable increases exponentially, exponential growth is the amount in a savings account offering compound interest
function
a relation where each element of the domain corresponds to exactly one element of the range
function notation
a way of naming a function with a letter and the input in parenthesis after the function name
For example, f(x) = x + 1 represents the function named f, with the independent variable, x.
inconsistent system
a system of linear equations that has no solution
independent variable
the input variable of a relationship
inequality
a mathematical sentence that shows the relationship between quantities that are not equivalent; symbols include > (great than), < (less than), ≥ (greater than or equal) and ≤ (less than or equal)
intercept
the point where the graph of a function crosses either the x-axis or the y-axis
intersecting lines
lines which cross at one point, the solution gives one of the variable solutions that is plugged in to one equation to find the other variable
inverse variation
a relationship between two variables in which the product is a constant; as the value of the independent variable increases, the value of the dependent variable decreases
lateral faces
all the sides except the base(s)
laws of exponents
the 7 basic laws that can be used to simplify algebraic and numerical expressions: the Product Law, Quotient Law, Power of a Power Law, Power of a Product Law, Power of a Quotient Law, Zero Exponent Law, and Negative Exponent Law
the numerical coefficient of the variable with the largest power
line of best fit
a straight line that best represents the data on a scatterplot
linear function
a function with a constant rate of change; the x values change by a constant amount and the y values change by a constant amount
nonlinear function
a function without a constant rate of change
number line
a line that graphically expresses the real numbers as a series of points distributed about a point arbitrarily designated as zero and in which the magnitude of each number is represented by the distance of the corresponding point from zero
ordered pair
a set of two numbers, represented in (x, y) form, indicating the values of two variables, x and y
outliers
data points on a scatter plot which lies outside the overall pattern of the trend line
parabola
a u-shaped curve with specific properties:  for a given point (the focus) and a given line through the focus (the directrix) a parabola is the locus of points equidistant from the focus and directrix
parallel lines
lines which never cross, the solution is a true statement without variables
polynomial
a group of monomials that are added or subtracted
an equation with a degree of 2, the highest exponent is 2
quantity
an amount
range
the set of values of the dependent variable for which a function is defined
rate
a comparison of two quantities with different units of measure
rate of change
the difference in output values divided by the difference in input values
relation
a relationship between two variables
root
for an equation or polynomial, the value(s) of the variable that makes the polynomial true when the polynomial is equal to 0
scatterplot
a graphic display of data as a set of points representing the relationship between two variables
slope
the difference in output values divided by the difference in input values
slope-intercept form
the y = mx + b form of a linear equation, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept
substitute
replace a variable with a number or equation
system of linear equations
a set of 2 or more linear equations with 2 or more variables that must be solved simultaneously
trend
tendency or movement
variable
a letter or other symbol that is used in a mathematical expression to represent a value that can change or vary
x-intercept
the point(s) where the function crosses the x-axis
y-intercept
the point(s) where the function crosses the y-axis
zeros
the solution(s) of a quadratic equation; a value of x that makes a function f(x) equal to 0, a zero of a function may be real or imaginary