3' to 5' strand
the strand in DNA that has a 3' carbon free from bonding to other nucleotides at one end
The nucleotides are joined at the 3' end of the molecule.
5' to 3' strand
the strand in DNA that has a pentose (sugar) with 5' (said "five prime") carbon which is free from bonding at one end, 5′ (five prime) and 3′ (three prime) ends, with the 5' end having a terminal phosphate group and the 3' end a terminal hydroxyl group
physical or nonliving factor that shapes an ecosystem
activation energy
energy that is needed to get a reaction started
active site
location on the enzyme where the substrate joins
active transport
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane with the input of energy (ATP)
describes how close measurement values are to widely accepted or the true answer
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
the energy molecule produced by the mitochondria
inheritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
also known as "summer sleep," a state of animal dormancy somewhat similar to hibernation; takes place during times of heat and dryness, the hot dry season, which is often but not inevitably the summer months
agar/culture medium
nutrient base that supports growth of cells, such as bacterial or skin cells
the sticking together of unlike molecules
powdered form of seaweed extract used as matrix (gel material) in gel electrophoresis
alcohol fermentation
an anaerobic step that yeast use after glycolysis that breaks down pyruvic acid to ethanol and carbon dioxide
alternate forms or varieties of a gene
allele frequency
number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of alleles in that pool for the same gene
amino acids
simple organic molecules which link together in chains to form protein
process by which bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonium ions (NH4) +
the process of organizing and making sense out of data; can lead to a modification of the hypothesis
In a scientific investigation, analysis refers to the organizing and making sense out of the results of the experiment and comparing this to the original hypothesis.
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
anaerobic respiration
respiration without oxygen; a way for an organism to produce usable energy without the involvement of oxygen
a seed-producing plant in which the ovules are enclosed in an ovary which develops into a fruit after fertilization
kingdom consisting of multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs
Examples include snakes, insects, and birds.
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases if a codon of mRNA
a term applied when two molecules are side by side but run in opposite directions such as: ↑ ↓
kingdom consisting of unicellular prokaryotic bacteria that can be found living in extreme conditions
asexual reproduction
type of reproduction in which offspring come from a single parent and inherit the genes of that parent only
in the nitrogen cycle, when living organisms take up nitrogen
the smallest unit or the basic building blocks of matter which make up all objects, made up of equal number of protons and electrons
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes; called body chromosomes
organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
a specialized white blood cell responsible for the body's immunity
B cells play a central role in antibody production.
a very large group of microorganisms comprising one of the three domains of living organisms
Bacteria are prokaryotic, unicellular, and either free-living in soil or water or parasites of plants or animals.
bacterial culture
bacteria grown in a controlled environment (usually Petri dish) for the purpose of identification or other analysis
bar graph
a chart that uses either vertical or horizontal bars to display countable data
a type of tumor that does not grow in an aggressive manner
prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered being unfair
binary fission
cellular reproduction performed by prokaryotic cells
binomial nomenclature
classification system in which all species is assigned a two-part scientific name
the study of where organisms live now and there they and their ancestors lived in the past
the region on, below, and above the Earth's surface where life exists
any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact
a group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
bottleneck effect
a change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population
coloring, shape, or form that allows an animal to blend into or hide in its environment
a disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth
capillary action
the combined forces of adhesion and cohesion in water that cause the climb of water in a thin tube
protein coat surrounding the virus
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body
carbon cycle
how carbon moves between the main carbon reservoirs
a substance than can cause cancer
organisms that eat only other animals to obtain their food
carrying capacity
the largest number of individuals in a species that an ecosystem can support
substances that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction
the basic unit of all life forms
cell cycle
the series of events that a cell goes through to divide and multiply
cell differentiation
the process by which cells become specialized in order to perform different functions
structure in animal cell that helps to organize cell division
region of the chromosomes where two sister chromatids attach
chemical energy
stored in chemical bonds; includes food, plants, and batteries
chemical reactions
process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
organelles found in plant cells and photosynthetic protists that contain chlorophyll and capture the radiant energy from the sun during the process of photosynthesis
one of the two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosomes
chromosomal mutations
mutations that produce changes in the whole chromosome
threadlike structure of tightly bundled DNA and protein that contains genetic information
circadian rhythm
a physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists even in the absence of external cues
circle graph
type of graph that shows how portions make up a whole, such as percentages with the entire circle representing 100 percent
evolutionary branch of a cladogram that includes a single ancestor and all of its descendants living and extinct
diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species
in classification, a group of closely related orders
climax community
the final stage of succession which remains relatively unchanged and stable until destroyed by an event such as fire or human interference
creation of a genetically identical organism
situation in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are completely expressed
group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein
the sticking together of like molecules
type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
common name
everyday name for an organism; may be different in different parts of the world
all the populations of different species living and interacting together in a distinct area
comparative investigation
an investigation where observations are made that compare two objects or phenomena
organisms of the same or different species attempt to use the same ecological resource (food, water, space) in the same place at the same time
complementary base pairing
the standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in relation to their opposite pairing, such as thymine being paired with adenine and cytosine paired with guanine
a statement that adequately explains or solves the original problem based on the results of scientific experimentation
organism that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients
contact inhibition
the cessation or stopping of cellular growth and division due to physical contact with other cell
all factors in the experiment that are not allowed to change throughout the entire investigation
control group
a standard of comparison for checking or verifying the results of an experiment where all variables must be held constant
the process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
a family of proteins that regulate the cell cycle
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
data collection probe-ware
digital sensors that can be connected to a computer or another digital data collection device; can measure such physical and chemical properties as dissolved oxygen, pH, current, temperature, light, etc.
data table
type of graphic organizer used to display data
daughter cell
a cell produced by reproductive division of a cell during mitosis or meiosis
organisms that obtain nutrients by chemically breaking down organic matter (dead plants and animals)
deletion chromosome mutation
mutation of a chromosome that involves the loss of all or part of a chromosome
deletion mutation
gene mutation in which one or more nucleotides are deleted
process by which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA; the molecule that controls how a cell functions
dependent variable
a characteristic of an experiment that is a result of the effect or influence of an independent variable
descriptive investigation
an investigation in which scientific questions are investigated and observations of phenomena are recorded and catalogued
dichotomous key
a tool that allows the user to determine the identity of items in the natural world
the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
dihybrid cross
a genetic cross using two traits each with two alleles
term used to refer to a cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
dissection probe
blunt tool, often angled, used to push aside or study organs
Deoxyribonucleic acid - genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents
DNA fingerprint
tool used by biologists that analyze an individual’s unique collection of DNA restriction fragments; used to determine whether two samples of genetic material are from the same person
DNA helicase
enzyme that unzips the DNA during replication
DNA polymerase
enzyme that adds new nucleotides and checks for duplication during replication
larger, more inclusive taxonomic category than kingdom
dominant trait
an allele that masks the presence of a recessive allele in the phenotype Dominant alleles for a trait are usually expressed if an individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
duplication chromosome mutation
mutation of a chromosome that produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome
long lasting, capable of withstanding scrutiny
ecological succession
a series of changes that occur over time in a community, particularly after a disturbance
all of the living (biotic) and all of the physical nonliving factors (abiotic) in an area
movement of individuals out of a population
empirical data
data collected from reliable measurement or observation
empirical evidence
evidence relating to or based on experience or observation
the process in which a small patch of plasma membrane encloses particles or tiny volumes of fluid that are at or near the cell surface
theory that states organelles in eukaryotes developed by engulfing energy – converting bacteria
energy conversion
energy changed from one form, or type, to another
protein catalyst that speed up the rate of specific biological reactions
enzyme-substrate complex
when the enzyme and the substrate are joined at the active site
kingdom consisting of unicellular prokaryotic organisms
an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes
objective findings during a scientific investigation that either support or do not support the hypothesis
experimental group
the group(s) being tested with the independent variable
Each experimental group has only one factor different from each other, everything else must remain constant.
experimental investigation
an organized scientific investigation thatincludes a control group and is designed to test the hypothesis;  includes independent and dependent variables and only attempts to test one variable at a time
statement that helps make something comprehensible (understandable)
exponential growth
with ideal conditions and unlimited amounts of resources, the population increases rapidly over time
the process in which the membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the plasma membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
facilitated diffusion
the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration with the aid of channel proteins
capable of being shown to be false if it is untrue
in classification, a group of closely related genera (plural for genus)
fatty acid
molecule consisting of a chain of four or more carbon atoms; building blocks of fat, essential for cell energy and growth
feedback mechanisms
a mechanism or a signal that tends to initiate (or accelerate) or to inhibit (or slow down) a process
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
the reproductive structure of angiosperms
fluid mosaic model
term used to describe the cell membrane because it moves around in water and is made up of many parts
food chains
the pathway along which energy from food is transferred from trophic level to trophic level by eating and being eaten
food webs
a network of feeding interactions among the organisms in an ecosystem
a dissection instrument that is similar to "tweezers" and which is used for grasping small tissues or organs
remains or traces of an organism that lived long ago
founder effect
change in allele frequencies as the result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
a ripened ovary of a plant
kingdom consisting of heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms
Examples include mushroom and yeast.
sex cell which has half the number of chromosomes as body cell
the phase of a plant life cycle in which gametes, sperm, and eggs are produced
gel electrophoresis apparatuses
equipment for the technique of electrically separating strands of DNA, RNA or protein molecules in a gel matrix for analysis
gene expression
the turning off or on of a specific gene to create a differentiated cell
gene flow
change in the allele frequency in a population due to random sampling and chance
gene mutations
mutations that produce changes in a single gene
gene pool
units of heredity
genetic diversity
sum total of all the different forms of genetic information carried by a particular species, or by all organisms on earth
genetic drift
random change in allele frequency caused by a series of chance occurrences that cause an allele to become more or less common in a population
the study of heredity or the passing on of traits from an organism to its offspring
a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms
the genetic makeup of an individual
Genotype can refer to an organism's entire genetic makeup or the alleles at a particular locus.
group of closely related species, the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature
a type of sugar made by plants and other autotrophs
a three-carbon substance that forms the backbone of fatty acids in fats
graduated cylinder
an instrument used to measure the volume of a liquid
a pictorial representation of information recorded in a data table
Gregor Mendel
Scientist/Monk from Austria who discovered, through his work with peas, the way in which traits are inherited
guard cells
a pair of curved epidermal cells that surround and control the opening and closing of a stoma in plant tissue
a vascular plant that produces seeds that are not protected by an ovary or fruit
term used to describe a cell that contains only half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell
organism that obtains energy by only eating plants
traits that can be passed from one generation to the next through DNA
having alleles of two different genes for a particular trait (Aa)
organism that contains its food by consuming other living things
sleep during winter; a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate
highly reliable
something that has been researched frequently that displays little or no change after repeated experiments
a retrovirus that causes immune system failure and debilitation
HIV is spread through direct contact with bodily fluids.
maintenance of a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes
term used to describe chromosomes in which one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent
homologous chromosomes
identical, or matching, chromosomes
homozygous dominant
genotype consisting of two dominant alleles of a gene for a particular trait (AA)
homologous structures
structures that are shared by related species with a similar structure but may have a different function that have been inherited from a common ancestor
homozygous recessive
genotype consisting of two recessive alleles of a gene for a particular trait (aa)
a substance produced by an organism that acts as a chemical messenger
an organism that is infected with or is fed upon by a parasitic or pathogenic organism (for example, a virus, nematode, fungus)
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
attracted to water
repels water
hypertonic solution
solution having a greater solute concentration outside the cell than inside the cell
a proposed explanation, based on observation and research, for a scientific question
hypotonic solution
a solution having a lesser solute concentration outside the cell than inside
an interpretation of an observation based upon evidence and prior knowledge
movement of individuals into a population
a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion
Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components.
incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over the other
independent variable
a characteristic of an experiment that determines the value of the other (dependent) variable(s)
inoculation loop/wire
instrument used for controlled transfer of bacteria Petri dish for culturing
insertion mutation
gene mutation in which an extra nucleotide is inserted
inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions; consists of the G1 phase, the S phase and the G2 phase
inversion chromosome mutation
mutation of a chromosome that reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome
method of gathering data by observation, testing a hypothesis, or comparing in order to solve a problem or answer a question
isotonic solution
solution in which the solutes' concentration is the same inside the cell as outside the cell
iterative process
any process that can result in the repetition of previous steps after revisions based on observations of collected data
micrograph of the complete set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs arranged in order of decreasing size
kinetic energy
energy of motion
largest and most inclusive group in the Linnaean classification system
lactic acid fermentation
a form of anaerobic respiration that occurs in animal cells use after glycolysis that breaks down pyruvic acid to lactic acid
law of independent assortment
states that each gene pair for a trait is inherited independently of the gene pairs for all the other traits
law of segregation
states that when the parent plant forms sex cells during the process of meiosis, the parent’s gene pairs segregate or separate
limiting factors
factors that cause a population to cease to grow or to decrease
line graph
type of graph that shows a continuous relationship (trend) between two variables
lipid bilayer
flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
biomolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fat, oils and waxes
logistic growth
an S-shaped curve showing how population growth increases rapidly, stabilizes, and reaches equilibrium
the process of a cell bursting
lysogenic infection
type of infection in which a virus embeds its DNA into the DNA of the hosts cell and is replicated along with the host cell's DNA
lytic infection
type of infection in which a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst
macromolecule or biomolecule
a chemical compound found in living organisms.
They are composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
having the ability to spread and move throughout the body
a mathematical representation of the typical value of a set of numbers, computed as the sum of the numbers in the set divided by the count of all the numbers in the set
process in which the number of chromosome per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
a concave surface of a liquid resulting from surface tension
The bottom of the meniscus is used to measure the volume of a liquid in apparatus such as a graduated cylinder.
the changing of an organism from birth to adulthood with specific stages and cell types
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another
metric ruler
the standard instrument for measurement in the scientific laboratory
a microorganism, especially a bacterium
scientific investigation that uses a microscope
cell organelle that is responsible for energy production
high precision instrument used to transfer very small amounts of liquid
the periodic movement of organisms seasonally from one location to another
part of eukaryotic cell division in which the nucleus divides
a replica, representation, or description designed to show how an object, system, or idea is constructed or how it works
two or more atoms of the same or different elements joined together
monogenic traits
genetic traits that are controlled by only one gene
monohybrid cross
a Punnett square that looks at only one trait
monophyletic group
group that consists of descendants from a single ancestral species
small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
Also called building blocks.
simple sugar molecule
when only one homologous chromosome is present in the organism
(messenger RNA) a type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
made up of many cells
multiple allele inheritance
genetic situation in which there are more than two alleles for a trait
inheritable changes in genetic information
type of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit
natural phenomena
any observable occurrence of the natural world
natural selection
process by which organisms that are most suited to their environment survive and reproduce successfully
negative feedback loop
the process of returning a system to normal conditions by producing a response that is the opposite of the stimulus
two step process in which bacteria converts ammonium ions (NH4) into nitrite(NO2) and nitrate (NO3) ions
nitrogen cycle
how nitrogen moves and is transformed between nitrogen gas, ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite ions
nitrogen fixation
process of converting nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use
the failure of homologous chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis
non-Mendelian genetic inheritance
inheritance of traits that do not follow the findings of Gregor Mendel, such as incomplete dominance, codominance, and multiple alleles
nonrandom mating
the process of individuals choosing a mate based on a certain characteristic
not supported
not confirmed, sustained, or maintained
nucleic acids
biomolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorous
a region of a prokaryotic cell where the genetic material is located
The nucleoid is NOT a membrane bound nucleus.
subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
a method of data collection that uses the five senses in collecting quantitative and qualitative data
animals whose diets include both plants and animals
opportunistic species
second species to populate an area during succession
in classification, a group of closely related families
ordered pairs
two pieces of data that are directly related to each other
groups of different types of tissues organized together to carry out a particular set of functions
organ system
groups of organs that function together to carry out broad sets of functions
a compound that contains the element Carbon, found in living organisms
organic compound
molecules found in nature to have hydrogen and carbon bonds
a group of organ systems working together that has a distinct existence as a complex, self-reproducing unit
the movement of water from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
osmotic pressure
pressure in plant cell due to osmosis
type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside or on another organism, causing harm
partial dominance
another name for incomplete dominance; situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over the other
passive transport
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane without the input of the cell's energy
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
Petri dish
covered clear, round dish made of heat-treated glass or plastic for culture of bacteria or to study small specimens
a fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one whose cause is in question
the observable or detectable characteristics of an individual organism; the detectable expression of a genotype
the living tissue that carries organic nutrients in vascular plants, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed
the evolutionary history of lineage
in classification, a group of closely related classes
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during succession
kingdom consisting of multicellular, eukaryotic autotrophs
point mutation
gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
polygenic traits
a trait controlled by two or more genes
molecules composed of many monomers; make up biomolecules
the creation of polymers out of many monomers
long chain of amino acids that make proteins
condition in which the organisms has extra sets of chromosomes
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
positive feedback loop
is created when the body produces a response that increases the stimulus
potential energy
stored energy, ready for use
describes how close together measurements are to each other
interaction in which one organism (predator) captures and feeds on another organism (prey)
primary succession
succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present
the likelihood of a particular event happening
organism that make their own food; also called autotrophs
the ending materials in a chemical equation
an organism whose cells lack a nucleus or organelles. Bacteria are classified as prokaryotes.
bacteriophage DNA that is embedded in the bacterial host's DNA
stage of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the duplicated chromosomes become visible
a biomolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair
protein synthesis
the process in which cells build proteins
kingdom consisting of eukaryotic organisms such as the paramecium, amoeba and euglena
Punnett square
a simple graphical method of showing all of the potential combinations of offspring genotypes that can occur and their probability given the parent genotypes
pyramid of biomass
pyramid that shows the relative amount of organic matter, or living tissue, available at each trophic level in an ecosystem
pyramid of energy
pyramid that shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level of a food chain or web
pyramid of numbers
pyramid that shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem
qualitative data
data that describes the characteristics such as colors, smells, texture, etc.
quantitative data
data which can be measured such as length, time, temperature, etc.
a problem that cannot be answered by simple observation or by research
radiant energy
energy from electromagnetic waves, such as heat and light from the sun
the starting materials in a chemical equation
receptor site
a specific protein on the surface of the cell
recessive trait
an allele that is masked in the phenotype by the presence of a dominant allele
Recessive alleles are expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is homozygous recessive (aa).
repeated trials
a way to validate data by performing an investigation multiple times
experimental processes using repetition to confirm previous experimental findings
the process of copying DNA prior to cell division
reproductive migration
the periodic movement of a population from one region or climate to another in accordance with the yearly cycle of weather and temperature changes
a reaction to a stimulus
(Ribonucleic acid) single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose and is important for protein synthesis
RNA polymerase
enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template
root system
parts of plants that are below the ground including the roots and modified stem structures such as rhizomes and tubers
a dissection instrument with a sharp blade used to open organisms, such as worms or frogs
animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have died by some other cause
a systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation
scientific explanation
a statement based on empirical evidence that helps make something comprehensible (understandable)
scientific investigation
a structured way to investigate phenomena, acquire new knowledge, or correct and integrate previous knowledge
scientific methodology
an organized system used by scientists to perform investigations that help to develop an accurate explanation of observations
scientific name
name made up of genus and species and is the same for each organism all over the world
scientific notation
the method of writing numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10
scientific research question
the question to be answered during a scientific investigation
seasonal migration
the periodic movement of a population from one region or climate to another in accordance with the yearly cycle of weather and temperature changes
secondary succession
type of succession that occurs in a area that was only partially destroyed by disturbance
selectively permeable membrane
membrane that allows certain molecules to pass through and prevents others from crossing
when pollen fertilizes the egg of the same flower
sex chromosomes
determine the gender or sex of an individual
sexual recombination
the recombining of genetic traits that occurs when a male gamete fuses with a female gamete
sexual reproduction
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of the new organism
sex-linked gene
gene located on a sex chromosome (X or Y chromosomes)
Typically these are located on the X chromosomes.
sex-linked inheritance
inheritance of a trait that is located on a sex chromosome (X or Y chromosomes)
These are typically located on the X chromosomes.
shoot system
parts of plants that are above the ground including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits
sickle cell anemia
disease caused by a mutation and passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape
significant figures
the digits that contribute the precision of the number
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
a fan-like microtubule structure that develops outside the nucleus during mitosis and pulls the chromatids apart toward opposite poles
the spore producing phase of a plant life cycle
stem cells
cells that can differentiate into any cell type
binocular instrument for low magnification of macro material studies
a signal to which an organism responds
tiny openings or pores found mostly on the underside of a plant leaf and used for gas exchange
substitution mutation
gene mutation in which one base on a nucleotide is changed to a different base
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
change to an ecosystem, often after an environmental change
confirmed, sustained, or maintained
surface makers
proteins on the surface of viruses
any relationship in which two species live closely together
study of the diversity of life and the evolutionary relationships between organisms
one type of white blood cell that attacks virus-infected cells, foreign cells, and cancer cells
T-cells also produce a number of substances that regulate the immune response.
the science of classifying living organisms
application of knowledge to solve problems or create new tools
phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin
having the ability to be tested using a controlled investigation
unit that contains four chromatids that form during meiosis
a scientific explanation that is used to explain many different hypotheses about the same phenomenon or a closely related class of phenomena
an instrument used to measure temperature
a group of cells working together to perform a particular function in the body of the living organism
specific characteristic of an individual
synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
transgenic organisms
organisms produced by putting one organisms' DNA into the genes of another organism
process by which the sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein
the movement of materials in the phloem from leaves to other parts of the shoot system and the root system throughout the plant
translocation chromosome mutation
mutation of a chromosome that occurs when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and roots
transpiration pull
the reduction of pressure on water in the xylem tube caused by the evaporation of water from the stoma
It results in a "pull" of more water up the xylem from the roots.
triple beam balance
an instrument used to measure mass
an organisms having three copies of a homologous chromosome
trophic level
a step in a food chain or food web
a growth response that results in the curvature of a whole plant toward or away from stimuli due to different rates of cell elongation
(Transfer RNA) type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
true breeding
an organism that produces offspring identical to itself
an abnormal mass of tissue which may be cancerous or benign
made up of one cell
a substance given to stimulate the body's production of antibodies and provide immunity against a disease, prepared from the agent that causes the disease or a synthetic substitute
something that may be changed or manipulated during an investigation
a modification in structure, form or function in an organism, deviating from other organisms of the same species or group
vascular plants
plants that contain vascular tissue, xylem, and phloem
vegetative reproduction
process in which a new plant grows from part of the parent plant
viral disease
disease caused by a virus
an infectious particle made of proteins, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids; thought to be non-living
having been in accepted existence for a long time; standing up to scrutiny
white blood cell
cells of the immune system that defend the body against infectious diseases and foreign materials
the living tissue that carries water from the root to the leaves of a plant
a fertilized egg