physical or nonliving factor in an ecosystem
a trait which helps an organism or species survive
different forms of the same gene
an instrument used to measure wind speed
a body of saturated rock through which water can easily move
amino acid
simple organic molecules, which link together in chains to form protein
asexual reproduction
a form of reproduction that involves only one parent
an organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food
bar graph
a type of graph that shows a quantitative comparison between ordered pairs, using a series of columns to display data
an instrument used to measure air pressure
binary fission
type of asexual reproduction in which the parent organism divides into two daughter cells that are equal in size
the variety of life on Earth across all of the different levels of biological organization
biogeochemical cycle
any of the various pathways elements that cycle through the biosphere
organic compounds that are produced by living organisms
the region on, below, and above the Earth's surface where life exists
any living part of an environment
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid turns to vapor
type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism is created as a smaller outgrowth on the side of the parent organism
color, shape, or form that allows an animal to blend into or hide in its environment
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body
carbon cycle
how carbon moves between the main carbon reservoirs
an organism that only eats other animals to obtain their food
the basic unit of all life forms
causal relationship
a relationship where one variable causes another variable to change
cell cycle
the series of events that a cell goes through to divide and multiply
chemical change
a change that results in the formation of a new substance with different properties than the original substance
chemical digestion
process where chemicals break down large food molecules into smaller ones that can absorbed by the body
chemical property
characteristics of matter that require altering the substance before they can be observed
compound that captures radiant (light) energy from the sun and transforms it into chemical energy
organelles found in plant cells that contain chlorophyll
threadlike structure of tightly bundled DNA and protein that contains genetic information
circle graph
a type of graph that shows how portions make up a whole such as percentages with the entire circle representing 100%
circulatory system
body system that functions to transport nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body and carry away wastes
climax community
final stage of succession that remains relatively unchanged and stable until destroyed by an event, such as fire or human interference
comparative investigation
type of investigation that involves collecting data on different populations/organisms, or under different conditions (e.g., times of year, locations) to make a comparison
decayed organic material used as a plant fertilizer
a pure substance whose smallest unit is made up of atoms of two or more elements joined by chemical bonds
conceptual model
a model that makes comparisons with familiar things to help illustrate or explain an idea
the ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity
all factors in the experiment that are not allowed to change throughout the entire experiment or investigation
organism that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients
control group
a standard of comparison for checking or verifying the results of an experiment where all variables must be held constant
data table
type of graphic organizer used to display data in rows and columns
organisms that obtain nutrients by chemically breaking down organic matter (dead plants and animals)
the process of converting organic matter in the remains of organisms into nutrients
the mass of a substance divided by its volume D = Mass/Volume
dependent variable
the variable that acts in response to the manipulation of the independent variable
The dependent variable can be thought of as the results of the experiment.
descriptive investigation
type of investigation that involves describing and/or quantifying parts of a natural system
Deoxyribonucleic acid - genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents
dichotomous key
a tool that allows the user to determine the identity of items in the natural world
digestive system
body system that breaks down food to provide energy and nutrients to the cells of the body
dominant trait
an allele that masks the presence of a recessive allele in the phenotype
Dominant alleles for a trait are usually expressed if an individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
ecological succession
series of changes that occur over time in a community, particularly after a disturbance
the study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors in an environmental system
a biological community of interacting organisms (biotic factors) and their physical environment (abiotic factors)
ecosystem sustainability
the ability to maintain ecological interactions and processes such as, food chains and webs, biogeochemical cycles, and populations, in an environment
a pure substance made entirely of one type of atom
emergency shower
safety equipment used if a toxic or corrosive chemical is spilled on the skin or clothing
Contaminated clothing should be removed.
empirical evidence
evidence relating to or based on experience or observation
endocrine system
body system that is responsible for the regulation of the body and helps maintain homeostasis
the ability of a system to do work
energy pyramid
a graphical model of energy flow in a community
molecules, produced by the body, that speed up chemical reactions
Eukaryotic cell
a type of cell in which the DNA is enclosed in the nucleus
excretory system
body system that removes and excretes waste
experimental group
the group(s) being tested with the independent variable
Each experimental group has only one factor different from each other, everything else must remain constant.
experimental investigation
a type of investigation involving a process in which a "fair test" is designed in which variables are actively manipulated, controlled, and measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or refute a causal relationship
eye wash station
safety equipment used if a chemical splashes in someone's eyes
Eyes should be flushed for 15 minutes and the teacher should be notified immediately.
fatty acid
molecule consisting of a chain of four or more carbon atoms
process during which sperm and egg unite
fire blanket
large non-flammable cloth used to smother fires on people
fire extinguisher
active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires
food chain
the pathway along which energy from food is transferred from trophic level to trophic level by eating and being eaten
food web
a network of feeding interactions among the organisms in an ecosystem
units of heredity
the study of heredity or the passing on of traits from an organism to its offspring
the genetic makeup of an individual
graduated cylinder
an instrument used to measure the volume of a liquid
Gregor Mendel
scientist/monk from Austria who discovered, through his work with peas, the way in which traits are inherited
a three-carbon molecule that is part of a lipid
a pictorial representation of quantative information recorded in a data table
liquid water that is under the Earth's surface, in the ground
guard cells
a pair of curved epidermal cells that surround and control the opening and closing of a stoma in plant tissue
heat resistant gloves
protective clothing used to protect hands when handling hot objects
an organism that obtains energy by only eating plants
the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation
an organism that uses organic carbon for growth and reproduction
having alleles of two different genes for a particular trait (Aa)
sleep during winter; a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate
the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes
homozygous dominant
genotype consisting of two dominant alleles of a gene for a particular trait (AA)"
homozygous recessive
genotype consisting of two recessive alleles of a gene for a particular trait (aa)
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
independent variable
the variable that is changed on purpose for the experiment
This may refer to several levels or conditions of an independent variable.
a proposed explanation, based on observation and research, for a scientific question
an interpretation of an observation based upon evidence and prior knowledge
behavioral characteristics that an individual is born with
inorganic compound
a compound that does not contain a carbon hydrogen bond
inborn pattern of behavior often responsive to specific stimuli
integumentary system
body system that functions to provide protection
kinetic energy
energy in motion
lab apron
protective clothing worn to protect clothing and skin against chemical spills
Lab aprons are usually made of plastic and do not cover the arms.
lab coat
protective clothing worn to protect clothing and skin against chemical spills
Lab coats are usually made of cloth.
latex gloves
protective clothing used to protect hands against chemicals
law of conservation
law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another
line graph
a type of graph that shows a continuous relationship (trend) between two variables
compounds made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms; includes fat, oils and waxes
capable of being shaped or formed, as by hammering or pressure
mathematical model
a model made up of a mathematical equations and data
Computer software is often used to create mathematical models.
anything that has mass and takes up space
mechanical digestion
process where food is broken down through chewing, mixing and churning
cell division that forms the sex cells or gametes
melting point
the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
a concave surface of a liquid resulting from surface tension
The bottom of the meniscus is used to measure the volume of a liquid in apparatus such as a graduated cylinder.
process that modifies molecules into other forms, so that the molecules can be used or stored by the body
metric ruler
the standard instrument for linear measurement in the scientific laboratory
scientific investigation that uses a microscope
the periodic movement of organisms seasonally from one location to another
physical adaptation in which an animal imitates another animal or object to avoid predator
part of eukaryotic cell division in which the nucleus divides
a single sugar molecule
muscular system
body system that functions to allow for movement
an alteration or change in a gene
natural selection
the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring
nervous system
body system that is responsible for the control, coordination, and communication among all the parts of the body
nitrile gloves
protective clothing used to protect hands against chemicals
nitrogen cycle
how nitrogen moves between different forms of nitrogen
nucleic acids
compounds that contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous
the process of using one or more of the senses to gather information
an animal whose diet includes both plants and animals
opportunistic species
second species to populate an area during succession
ordered pair
two pieces of data that are directly related to each other
groups of different types of tissues organized together to carry out a particular set of functions
organ system
groups of organs that function together to carry out broad sets of functions
a specialized part of a cell having some specific function
organic compound
a compound containing carbon that is chemically bonded to hydrogen
a group of organ systems working together that has a distinct existence as a complex, self-reproducing unit
having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through
a fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one in which the cause is in question
the tissue that carries nutrients in plants to all parts of the plant where needed
process by which energy from the sun is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into high-energy sugars and oxygen
physical change
a change in the size, shape, or state that does not change the chemical makeup of the substance
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during succession
long chain of amino acids that make proteins
potential energy
stored energy, such as energy due to position
the observable or detectable characteristics of an individual organism
physical model
a model that you can see and touch that shows how parts relate to one another
physical property
characteristics of matter that can be easily observed using the senses
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during succession
long chains of sugars
primary succession
succession that occurs on an area in which no trace of a previous community was present
an organism that makes their own food; also called an autotroph
Prokaryotic cell
a type of cell that does not contain a true nucleus
compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair
an instrument used to measure relative humidity
Punnett square
a simple graphical method of showing all of the potential combinations of offspring genotypes that can occur and their probability given the parent genotypes
qualitative data
data that describes characteristics such as colors, smells, texture, etc.
quantitative data
numerical data which can be measured such as length, time, temperature, etc.
recessive trait
an allele that masks the presence of a dominant allele in the phenotype
Recessive alleles are expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is homozygous recessive (aa).
respiratory system
body system that functions to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
the draining away of water (or substances carried in it) from the surface of the area of land, building, or structure
safety glasses
protective clothing worn to protect the eyes against flying objects
Safety glasses do not provide adequate coverage for chemical spashes.
safety goggles
protective clothing worn to protect eyes against chemical splashes
animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have died by some other cause
scientific explanation
a statement that helps make something comprehensible (understandable)
scientific model
a representation of an object, system, or event used as a tool for understanding the natural world
secondary succession
type of succession that occurs on an area that was partially destroyed by disturbance
selective breeding
the intentional breeding of organisms with desirable traits in order to produce offspring with similar desirable traits or with improved traits
when pollen fertilizes the egg of the same flower
sexual reproduction
a form of reproduction that involves two parents and a combination of genetic material
size dependent property
physical characteristics of matter that depend on the size or amount of the substance
size independent property
physical characteristics of matter that do not depend on the size or amount of the substance
skeletal system
body system that functions to provide structure and protection
type of asexual reproduction that involves spores
an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
spring scale
an instrument used to measure the force of a load
tiny openings or pores found mostly on the underside of a plant leaf and used for gas exchange
surface water
any water, in liquid form, that is on the Earth’s surface
a scientific conclusion that is used to explain many different hypotheses about the same phenomenon or a closely related class of phenomena
an instrument used to measure temperature
a group of cells working together to perform a particular function in the body of the living organism
specific characteristic of an individual
a general direction or pattern in which data changes
triple beam balance
an instrument used to measure mass
trophic level
a step in a food chain or food web
true breeding
an organism that produces offspring identical to itself
vegetative propagation
type of asexual reproduction in which a new plant grows from part of the parent plant
an area of land where water drains downhill to the lowest point
the tissue that carries water from the root to the leaves of a plant
a fertilized egg