a person who wants to get rid of slavery
related to farming
relationships in which people agree to work together
a formal change to the Constitution
one of a group of people who opposed ratification of the Constitution, preferring a weaker national government and power concentrated in the states
Army of Northern Virginia
major branch of the Confederate army based out of Richmond
Army of the Potomac
major branch of the Union army based out of Washington, D.C.
Articles of Confederation
the document that organized the first federal government system of the United States; it was replaced by the U.S. Constitution
the act or process of assimilating, or blending, into the mainstream culture
the state of individuals or businesses being unable to pay their debts
bicameral legislature
a legislative body that has two-halves as in the U.S. Congress which is split between the House of Representatives and the Senate
bills of attainder
legislation that declares someone a criminal without giving them a trial
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments of the Constitution
Black Codes
laws that restricted the freedom of newly freed slaves
an act of war in which one country uses ships to stop people or supplies from entering or leaving another country
an official document in which a government or company promises to pay back an amount of money that it has borrowed and to pay interest for the borrowed money
Boston Tea Party
protest in Boston on December 1773 over the Tea Act when a group of colonists emptied a shipment of tea into Boston Harbor; directly led to the Intolerable Acts
a line or a point that indicates where an area ends and another area begins
the group of advisors to the President, who head the departments of the Executive Branch
California Gold Rush of 1849
migration of people in the United States to California in order to find gold
Southern nickname for Northerners who came South during Reconstruction to take advantage of military rule
a military person lost through death, wounds, injury, sickness, or capture or through being missing in action
granted by a treaty
granting land to another
to be a characteristic of; distinguish
a written set of rights given by a government
checks and balances
feature of the American system of government in which one branch of government can limit the actions of another branch
an American Indian tribe that settled originally in the southeastern region of the United States
an arrangement of events in order of occurrence
the act of establishing a colony
an agreement in which each person or group gives up something that was wanted in order to end an argument or dispute
concurrent powers
powers of government that both the federal and state governments have
Confederate States of America
the nation that the Southern states attempted to form after their secession from the Union
Continental Congress
the assembly of representatives from the colonies in the 18th century that protested the actions of the British government and ultimately declared independence from England
the act of establishing a colony
Connecticut Compromise
another name for the Great Compromise that created the Congress because it was proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut
constitutional republic
a system of government in which the ultimate power resides in the people who elect representatives to rule on their behalf through limitations set in a constitution
Declaration of Independence
document that stated the 13 American colonies were separated from England
Declaratory Act of 1766
act of Parliament in 1766 that accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act; stated that Parliament had the same authority over the colonies that it did over people in Britain
a representative of the people
a period of low economic activity
a government in which the ruler has absolute power over the governed
the condition of being composed of different elements such as cultures and races
double jeopardy
the trying of someone twice for the same crime
due process
the right to a fair legal proceeding before the government takes something away from a person
related to the Electoral College system
the act of becoming free, especially from slavery
Emancipation Proclamation
declaration by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, that all slaves of the states in rebellion were 'forever free'
a government order that limits trade
English Bill of Rights
a document passed in 1689 that limited the power of the English monarch and defined the rights of the British people and Parliament
a person who starts a business
enumerated powers
powers specifically granted to Congress in the Constitution
equal representation
membership in a governing body that is equally divided among the represented entities, as in the U.S. Senate
a period identified by some prominent figure or characteristic feature
establishment clause
the part of the first amendment that forbids the government from having an official religion
emphasizing salvation by faith in the atoning death of Jesus Christ through personal conversion
ex post facto law
a law that can be applied retroactively for actions that occured prior to its passing
executive branch
the part of the government that enforces the laws and, in the U.S. system, is headed by the president
the act of traveling for adventure or discovery
a group of people with common interests
the principle of government that splits power between a national or federal level and a state or local level
one of a group of people who supported ratification of the Constitution and a strong national government; also the name of the first political party in the United States, founded by Alexander Hamilton
Federalist Papers
collection of 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of the Constitution
the right to vote
free exercise clause
the part of the first amendment that forbids government from restricting the practice of religion
Freedman's Bureau
Reconstruction-era organization that assisted former slaves after emancipation
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
the constitution for the colony of Connecticut ratified in 1639
Gadsden Purchase
purchase of a strip of land from Mexico along the Southern border of Arizona and New Mexico
general welfare
the state of doing well
grand jury
a group of citizens called to debate whether there is enough evidence to charge someone with a serious crime, like murder
Great Compromise
a deal that created Congress by taking aspects of the Virginia Plan (bicameral legislature, proportional representation for the House of Representatives) and the New Jersey Plan (equal representation in the Senate)
a strong complaint over a perceived unjust act; a formal complaint
Homestead Act
law that offered settlers free land in the West in exchange for improving the land and living there for at least five years
one who moves into a country of which one is not a native for permanent residence
the act of moving into a country of which one is not a native for permanent residence
implied powers
powers of Congress not specifically stated in Article I, Section 8, but included through invoking the necessary and proper clause
British policy of removing American seamen and forcing Americans to work for the Royal Navy
inaugural address
speech made by the President right at the beginning of his term after taking the oath of office
individual rights
the principle of government in which the people have certain guarantees that the government must either provide or protect
related to manufacturing
industrial revolution
a major change in an economy (as in England in the late 18th century) caused by an important change in the technology and use of machines
a new idea, method, or device
cause the start of
interstate commerce
any economic activity such as the buying and selling of goods conducted between states
Intolerable Acts
series of laws passed by Parliament in 1774 to punish the people of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party and that were influential in changing colonial opinion
Jim Crow
laws that segregated blacks from whites in public places
judicial branch
the part of the government that interprets the law and, in the U.S. system, is led by the Supreme Court
judicial review
the power of a court to rule on the constitutionality of a law
Ku Klux Klan
racist terrorist organization that violently oppressed African Americans and other minority groups
legislative branch
the part of the government that makes the law and, in the U.S. system, is led by Congress
the deliberate printing of something false with the intent of damaging someone's reputation
limited government
the principle that government has only the power that is allowed by law
the ability to read and write
Magna Carta
a document signed in 1215 that limited the power of the English monarch
majority rule, with minority rights
a system of government in which the people rule (popular sovereignty) but with limits to protect the minority
Manifest Destiny
the belief that it was the proper role of the United States to spread democracy and rule North America
Marbury v. Madison
landmark Supreme Court case from 1803 that gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review
Mayflower Compact
a document signed in 1620 by the Pilgrims on the Mayflower establishing self-government for the Plymouth Colony
McCulloch v. Maryland
landmark Supreme Court case from 1819 that stated Congress had the power to create a national bank, established the existence of implied powers, and confirmed the supremacy of the federal government over the state government
the policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports
Mexican Cession
the large amount of land Mexico gave the United States after the U.S. - Mexican War
the act of moving from one place or region to another
body of citizens organized for military service, sometimes only called in an emergency
Morrill Act
law that provided states with grants of land to fund the creation of colleges
a style of art or literature that shows people and things as they actually are
not supporting either side of a war
New Jersey Plan
a plan for the U.S. government supported by large states at the Constitutional Convention which created a unicameral legislature with states sharing power equally
Northwest Ordinance
a law that successfully planned the settling of the Ohio River Valley, or Northwest Territories
Pacific Railroad Act
law that provided for the creation of the first Transcontinental Railroad
Panic of 1873
a collapse of U.S. banks and railroad companies in 1873 that helped send the country into depression
the legislative assembly of England
registered by one person or group
the act of being attacked, harassed, or annoyed because of belief
a formal written request made to an official person or organized body
the principle that legitimate government power comes from the people, or "the people rule"
all future generations
an introduction, most often referring to the introduction of the Constitution, which begins 'We the People'
Presidential Reconstruction
reconstruction lead by Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson
the state of being productive
proportional representation
membership in the legislature based on population, as in the U.S. House of Representatives
the first version or model of a product
the beliefs and practices characteristic of the Puritans
the housing of soldiers in a private citizen's home
Radical Republicans
members of the Republican party who fought during Reconstruction for a more punishing peace with the South and equal rights for freed slaves
the process of formally approving either the Constitution as a whole or an amendment to the Constitution
the period of U.S. history after the Civil War from 1865-1877 in which the North readmitted the South into the Union
Reconstruction Act of 1867
law passed by the Radical Republicans in Congress that divided the South into military districts, beginning Congressional Reconstruction
the cancellation or reversal of law
representative government
a system of government in which the people elect agents to represent them in a legislature
a government where the supreme power lies with the citizens who vote for elected officers and representatives
the principle of government in which the will of the people is expressed through elected representatives
reserved powers
powers of government that only states have
a fundamental change in political organization
guarantees the government must provide the people (includes things like freedom of speech, a fair trial, and voting)
right to bear arms
the right to own weapons found in the second amendment
a literary, artistic, and philosophical movement originating in the 18th century, characterized chiefly by a reaction against neoclassicism and an emphasis on the imagination and emotions with an appreciation of external nature
related to the country
Southern nickname for Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union and wanted equal rights for African Americans during Reconstruction in order to receive preferential treatment during military rule
to withdraw from an organization (as a nation, church, or political party)
the division of economies, social structures, customs, and political values of the North and South
instruments of investment in the form of a document such as stock certificates or bonds
the ruling of oneself
the giving of evidence against yourself
The 5th amendment forbids the state from compelling self-incrimination.
separation of powers
the split of power in the U.S. government between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
economic arrangement in which a person rents out farmland to someone who will work it in exchange for a percentage of the crops
Shays's Rebellion
an uprising of Massachusetts farmers from 1786-1787 that highlighted the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
social contract
a belief that government formed as a deal among the people to give power to the state in exchange for protection
the independent power to rule or govern possessed by a state or government
Stamp Act of 1765
unpopular tax on goods passed by Parliament in 1765 which produced boycotts and the first major series of colonial protests over no taxation without representation
state of nature
a theoretical state of mankind before there was any form of government
a work stoppage
the right to vote
taxes or duties imposed by a government on imported goods
an amount of money assessed by a government for public purposes
Tea Act of 1773
a small tax on tea that accompanied a massive cut in the price of tea by the East India Trading Company and was another effort by Parliament to establish control over the colonies; led to the Boston Tea Party
the application of science in industry or commerce
reform movement that focused on either limiting or ending the consumption of alcohol
Tenure of Office Act
law passed in 1867 that prevented a President from removing a Cabinet member without the consent of the Senate
Three-Fifths Compromise
a deal in the original Constitution in which slaves counted as three-fifths of a person to determine a state's representation in the House of Representatives
a government policy of permitting forms of religious belief and worship not officially established
Townshend Acts of 1767
series of taxes passed in 1767 to establish Parliament's authority over the colonies and that led to the occupation of Boston by British troops and ultimately the Boston Massacre of 1770
a philosophy that spirituality and emotions should be favored over the material and the logical
the state of being tranquil or peaceful
Transcontinental Railroad
railroad that ran across the entire United States
tyranny of the majority
a condition in a democracy in which the majority of people vote to oppress a minority of the population
a ruler who uses power oppressively or unjustly
unalienable rights
rights that cannot be taken away
unicameral legislature
a legislative body that has only one chamber, as was called for in the New Jersey Plan
related to cities
the growth of cities
having idealistic conditions especially of social organization
the power of a president or chief executive to reject a law passed by a legislative body
Virginia House of Burgesses
the representative legislative assembly for the colony of Virginia
Virginia Plan
a plan for the U.S. government supported by large states at the Constitutional Convention which created a bicameral legislature with membership based on population